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Types of Espresso Drinks 101:
A Complete Espresso-Pedia

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By Matt Woodburn-Simmonds

Espresso is the most prevalent form of coffee found in Western coffee shops. Today, it feels like there is an increasing array of espresso beverages available. Each offers different combinations of milk, foam, and water to create new, and increasingly specific, coffees. 

From ristretto to macchiato, cappuccino to cortado, it’s easy to get confused with all the different types of espresso drinks on offer. So how do you know which one is best for you? Or do you just stick to your old faithful?

Read on as we run through the most popular espresso drinks, explain what they are, and a bit about their history. Plus, there’s a handy chart to keep you on the right track. 

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Espresso Drinks Chart

Infographic providing a visual guide to the different types of espresso drinks
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What are Espresso Based Drinks?

A good starting place: what is espresso? And what drinks are made with espresso?

Espresso is just one of many coffee types. Whilst you can buy specific espresso beans, this doesn’t mean you can’t use regular coffee beans. And vice versa.

The main point of difference between coffee and espresso is the brewing method. Espresso is brewed under pressure which is why you need a specific espresso machine. Though there are many types of espresso machines and it doesn’t matter whether you opt for a bean-to-cup or manual lever one.

The result is a short, concentrated shot of espresso that packs a flavorful punch.

Espresso shots can then be used to make a huge range of coffee drinks. We will take you through the most popular types of espresso drinks in this post.


Types of Espresso Drinks


Cup of espresso on a red table

There are many definitions of espresso, from the very broad to the insanely precise. We prefer a more general definition: a small, strong drink made using finely ground coffee and water under high pressure.

The espresso has 3 parts, the crema, the body, and the heart.

The crema is the light brown foam on top and contains the aromatics of the shot. The heart is the dark brown section at the bottom of the espresso and carries the bitter notes. The body is the caramel-colored section between the crema and the heart.

The weight of ground coffee to the weight of the finished drink should be around 1:2. Though some will use a ratio closer to 1:3.

Crema has long been seen as a mark of quality. But, this isn’t necessarily true. Espresso machines keep getting better at creating crema regardless of the quality of the coffee or the barista’s skill.

Many top baristas will also tell you that you can have a superb espresso without any crema. The quality all depends on your espresso beans and machine.

Generally, an espresso will be 1oz for a single shot and 2 oz for a double espresso, also known as a doppio. This is just a general guide, you will find espresso much smaller in Italy, around 0.5oz, and much bigger in coffee shop chains, sometimes as large as 2oz!


Short ristretto in a glass beside an espresso to show the size difference
Left – Ristretto; Right – Espresso

Ristretto comes from the Italian meaning “restricted”.

A ristretto should be an even smaller, stronger coffee than espresso.

This is done by running less water through the same amount of ground coffee. This is usually done by the Barista cutting extraction off when they get a 1:1 ratio of grounds to coffee out. This will result in a very short, strong coffee that is still aromatic and a little sweeter than espresso as the bitter notes are extracted last.

Just like espresso, it can be used as the base for milky coffee drinks. One hot new example of this comes straight from Australia’s coffee capital – Melbourne. It’s the magic coffee: a 5oz drink that combines a double ristretto with textured milk.


Lungo in a glass cup with saucer, sitting on a wooden table

Historically, the lungo “long” coffee was looked down upon by the specialty coffee community.

The same amount of coffee was used as an espresso but with much more water is run through the grounds, a ratio of 1:3 or even 1:4. This created a much longer, weaker, and bitter drink. Although it did offer a longer-lasting coffee-drinking experience for the customer.

However, a lack of body and mouthfeel alongside the extra bitterness are not characteristics most people look for in good coffee.

Lately, there has been a movement to brew lighter roasts in this fashion. This can result in a very well-balanced cup of coffee with great complexity.

Want to take a deeper dive into what separates ristretto from lungo/long shot? Check out our detailed guide here:


Top down view of a macchiato - a short espresso drink with a splash of milk foam

In Italian, macchiato means “stained” or “marked”. The espresso drink bearing this name is not indicative of what happens when you spill it on your new white top. But, instead, from the idea of “staining” an espresso shot with a splash of milk foam.

The macchiato style originated in Italy. The busy baristas required an easy way to remember which espresso of the many lined up in front of them contained a splash of milk.

If you add milk to espresso, it will simply sink under the crema so you can’t tell which is which. However, adding a teaspoon of milk foam to the top makes it clear and ensures everyone gets the correct espresso. Like putting an orange slice instead of a lemon in Diet Coke.

Over time, this has morphed into an espresso topped with foam. Sometimes this is because the customer wants a longer, sweeter drink, and sometimes because the barista wants to do latte art in tiny cups. But it should just be a teaspoon of foam on top.

To further confuse matters, coffee giants like Starbucks offer something called a “Caramel Macchiato”. This is just a latte “stained” with a hint of caramel syrup. So, in these coffee shops, you’ll find the original espresso macchiato labeled as “traditional macchiato” or something similar.


Frothy cappuccino with a croissant behind it

Cappuccino is the favored breakfast coffee of the Italians, who will then drink espresso for the rest of the day.

There are many myths about the cappuccino, many stemming from its name which is taken from the Capuchin monks.

The drink originates in Vienna in the 19th century where it was called “Kapuziner”. It was a black coffee mixed with milk or cream until it became the same color as the robes of the Capuchin monks. So, nothing to do with their hoods or haircuts as many legends go.

The “rule of thirds” is often thrown about for modern-day cappuccino: 1/3 standard espresso shot, 1/3 steamed milk, and 1/3 milk foam.

The first reference to this “rule” is from the 1950s. Although, since espresso didn’t exist until then this isn’t that surprising.

But the phrase is actually “an espresso mixed with equal amounts of milk and foam”. Now, this could mean a 1:1:1 ratio. Or could just as easily be a 1:2:2 ratio. It’s pretty ambiguous really.

I personally like the 1:1:1 ratio drink, mainly because I like strong coffee. However, the 1:2:2 ratio has a long tradition and is the style most commonly found in coffee shops. This is also due to people wanting very large coffees but not 4+ shots of espresso.

Read next: Espresso vs Cappuccino


Caffe latte with latte art in a blue cup

Caffè latte literally translates from Italian as “milk coffee”.

However, the latte developed away from Italy as espresso spread around the world. Many found the drink too intense and too bitter so they mixed it with a large amount of textured milk to soften the flavors and add sweetness.

The foam element should only be a thin layer on the top. The goal is to drastically lessen the espresso shot’s intensity. The ratio of espresso to milk should be 1:3. However you’ll mostly encounter much larger amounts of milk than that from high street chains.

Around the world, there are different variations of the traditional recipe. For example, the Spanish Latte and the Kyoto Latte are both made with condensed milk. And lately there’s a growing trend of people adding protein powder to make an iced protein coffee/latte too.

Read next: Iced Coffee vs Iced Latte


Flat white with basic latte art in a glass, sitting on a wooden board

For a heated coffee argument, just look to Australia and New Zealand who both stake claim to the original Flat White. The only clarity we have is that this coffee drink is definitely an invention of the Australasian continent.

As with many things whose origins are unclear, there are plenty of stories. However, my favorite explanation is that a change in diet for Australian cattle in the 1980s resulted in milk with lower fat content. It is harder to create foam with lower-fat milk so cappuccinos would often be “flat”.

An enterprising coffee shop owner decided this would be a new drink: a “flat white”. A cappuccino-sized espresso drink but with latte-like foam. The resulting drink is less milky and has a stronger espresso flavor than both cappuccinos and lattes.

By the early 1990s, you could get a “flat white” across most of Europe. Most people ordered it because they were fed up with overly foamy cappuccinos – or a mouthful of air.

The best way to describe the flat white is a small, strong latte with a higher coffee-to-milk ratio, 1:2 instead of 1:3. The strength of coffee alongside a good amount of steamed milk and little foam makes it an ideal candidate for latte art, which has increased in popularity.

Read next: Flat White vs Cappucino


An Americano (espresso topped with hot water) in a pretty mug

The Americano is a watered-down espresso, made by adding 4oz of hot water to a double espresso (2oz).

It is allegedly named after American soldiers in Italy post-WW2. They found the Italian coffee too strong so asked for hot water to dilute it down to the strength they were used to, dubbed the “caffé americano”.

It resembles a drip-style coffee though is inferior in flavor most of the time. The great Americano coffee is favored by café owners as they can produce something akin to traditional black coffee without having to buy extra coffee-making equipment.

In the summer months, you can cool down with an iced americano – the same great flavor, but refreshingly cool.

Removing the crema straight after brewing can vastly improve the taste of your Americano. The crema has tiny bits of coffee trapped in it. So, when added to water, the flavor will continue to be extracted, increasing the bitterness of your coffee. It’s a bit of extra work but, for me, makes a big difference.


A Spanish cortado coffee in the iconic Libbey Gibraltar glass

For the cortado, we head to Spain. More specifically, Madrid.

This small drink uses a slightly different style of espresso than the rest of the drinks listed here:

Spanish espresso is usually slightly longer and weaker than Italian espresso.

To make your cortado you need 1oz of espresso made from dark roast robusta beans, mixed with an equal amount of steamed, but not textured, milk. It is usually served in a glass. As its popularity has spread globally, it has increased in size. In the US it is almost always served with a double espresso. But the basic concept of equal parts espresso and steamed milk stays the same.

Psst… Want to see how the Cortado stacks up against some of the most popular coffee drinks?
Check out our guides below:

Cortado vs Flat White | Cortado vs Macchiato | Cortado vs Latte | Cappuccino vs Cortado


Breve coffee made from espresso and steamed half-and-half milk

Compared to the classics like latte and cappuccino, breve coffee (also known as cafe breve or breve latte) is the newest kid on the block.

This espresso variation was created in the US by combining a double espresso with an equal amount of steamed half-and-half milk. The result is creamy, rich, and indulgent – more of a dessert or after-dinner drink than a morning pick-me-up.

To take a deeper dive into this decadent drink including how to make it at home, head over to our full guide on all things breve coffee.


Cup of mocha on a napkin

Ah, the mocha. A delicious concoction for those who have a sweet tooth but still want to enjoy a coffee.

The mocha is sneered at by coffee aficionados as it’s more a caffeinated hot chocolate than a coffee drink. But there’s no need to be unkind about it.

Mocha is a double shot of espresso, mixed with either chocolate powder or syrup, then topped with latte-style milk. Basically, a mocha is a latte with added chocolate. It should be rich, sweet, and chocolatey with the bitterness and edge of the espresso to stop it from being too sweet.

If you are a fan of iced espresso drinks on a hot day, mocha works great over ice. We recommend using whisky stones rather than ice to stop your iced coffee from becoming diluted as the ice melts.


Big cup of red eye coffee - a highly caffeinated espresso drink with added brewed coffee

There is a proliferation of espresso-based drinks with increasingly esoteric names. The Red Eye is one such concoction and resembles the kind of Frankenstein’s monster of a coffee that I used to drink whilst working 80-hour weeks in hospitality.

First, you take a cup of regular black coffee – usually filter or drip. Then you add a shot of espresso.

This amount of caffeine in one drink is not recommended and flavor kind of goes out the window at this stage. But, if you have barely slept and need to be insanely alert and fidgety, this is the black coffee on steroids to get you through.

If that’s still not enough caffeine for you, there is also the black eye and dead eye. This involves taking your hot black coffee and adding two or three espresso shots respectively. But, for us, that’s just a step too far.


Espresso con panna in an orange cup - lots of whipped cream on an espresso shot

If you can’t decide between dessert and coffee, the espresso con panna is the perfect marriage: creamy, sweet coffee.

Originating from the same drink as the cappuccino, espresso con panna started its life in Vienna. Here, strong coffee was topped with whipped cream and served with water on the side.

Whilst the cappuccino was taken and exported globally, the other branch stayed mainly in Austria. Espresso con panna won’t be found in every coffee shop. But, if you’re visiting Austria or other parts of Central Europe, it is one of the best espresso drinks to try. And it would be rude not to accompany it with a delicious sweet pastry too.

Espresso Martini

Freshly made espresso martini on marble countertop

A must-have option on any cocktail menu. The espresso martini is a favorite for all occasions from brunch to pre-dinner to late-night partying.

A simple combination of espresso, vodka, coffee liqueur, and simple syrup topped with a few coffee beans. The sweet rich coffee notes, vodka, and jolt of caffeine blend perfectly. The thick foam on top makes the drinks prime Instagram content too.

Maybe not one for before your morning commute though.

Espresso Tonic

An espresso tonic served at Stumptown Coffee Roasters

This is the new kid on the block that is cropping up more and more on coffee store menus around the globe.

It might sound strange at first but the combination of sweet yet bitter tonic water complements the rich and roasty notes in the espresso. Served over ice, this is a refreshing alternative to more traditional iced coffees.

If you’ve not tried espresso tonic yet, give it a go. You might be surprised by how good it was – I certainly was the first time I tried one!

Want to get a head start on this coffee trend by learning more about it and how to make it at home? Check out our guide, here:


A frappe made from mixing instant coffee (or espresso) with ice, milk, and water

So we know that Frappe technically shouldn’t be made with espresso, it should be made with instant coffee. However, we all know that your specialist coffee shops love to offer frappe and they are not dirtying their hands with such a thing as instant coffee so we’ve sneaked it onto the end here.

Frappe is coffee mixed with ice, milk, and water. Originating in Greece, you’ll often find them topped with whipped cream and mixed with a variety of syrups and flavorings to make a kind of drinkable coffee dessert. You’ll see them listed as “Frappuccino” in Starbucks and if you’re interested in frappe vs Frappuccino then we have a whole post about it.

Psst… Looking for something fun for your next read? Check out our list of Pawesome Coffee-Inpired Names for Dogs. You’ll find some of the espresso drinks mentioned here:

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Brief History of Espresso

Before diving into the plethora of great espresso drinks, we should start with a whirlwind tour through the origins of espresso:

In the late 19th century, coffee shops were booming. They were one of the most popular meeting places for people from all walks of life.

The problem they encountered was that brewing coffee took time. There were limited coffee types available as steeping and boiling were the only brewing options. So to serve more customers, they needed this process to be faster.

The early espresso machines used pressure from steam to brew regular black coffee faster, rather than brewing a totally different type of coffee. However, using steam doesn’t create that much pressure.

This is where café owner, Achilles Gaggia, made his breakthrough:

He added a lever that the barista could use to add extra pressure, up to the magic 8 bar of pressure we now think is the minimum for creating espresso.

With the creation of the espresso machine, the way we drank coffee completely changed.

Espresso bars became popular in Italy. As they were almost entirely standing, they avoided paying a tax placed on sit-down cafes.

This love of espresso was combined with the more social aspect of the old coffee houses. And so the coffee shop exploded across the world, pioneered by a small coffee house company from Seattle – Starbucks.

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Best Espresso Drinks

Espresso is probably the most versatile style of coffee which is why there is such a variety of espresso drinks available. You can take advantage of this versatility at any coffee shop or in the comfort of your own home.

Even a relatively cheap espresso machine with a steam wand will allow you to make any of these drinks at home, after a little practice. Or you can use a French press of milk frother separately if your budget is tight. 

If you have a little more money to spend, you can get a super-automatic espresso machine that will do it all for you – like having a coffee shop in your kitchen.

There are no “better” or “worse” espresso drinks. It’s all just about personal preference and the type of coffee drink you enjoy. And the only way to find your favorite is to practice, drink lots of different coffees, and find ‘The One’ espresso for you.


Matt Woodburn-Simmonds

Matt's coffee obsession started in 2006 when working as a Barista. A tendency to turn up to work hungover kickstarted his coffee journey which quickly turned into a love affair. As he moved on to work as a Restaurant Manager and Sommelier, the obsession continued to grow. Now, his passion is helping others to enjoy better coffee at home.

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